1992 - 2001: Modernization and reconstruction
Farewell from interurban lines: on 20th of November in 1993 a subway line replaces the tramway to Hasenbergl station.
Picture: Hendrik Abramowski
After thorough testing of the three R1 prototypes, the Munich City Council decided on 31 March 1992 to order a series of 70 new, more advanced trains. The construction of the companies AEG (Wagenbau) and Siemens (electrical equipment) were commissioned. The former wagon manufacturer MAN / GHH was merged in the meantime in the company AEG. At the same meeting, the former head of the Augsburg Transport Association, Herbert König, was elected to be the future plant manager of the Stadtwerke München against a number of opposing candidates.
On 1 October 1992 Herbert König began his work. One of the king's priority goals should be to consistently push ahead with the urgently needed modernization and expansion of the tram transport system in order to bring the tram back to new economic viability. The technology and infrastructure of the tram were largely still on the level of the early 60s.
The saving of trams by shorter travel times was an important element in achieving the goals set. As part of an "acceleration program" should gradually get the trams "Green Wave" on all tram routes and only stop at stops. The previous loss times at traffic lights as well as the slow driving on the points should belong to the past. Thus, the travel times could be shortened by about 30 percent. This extensive project required not only the conversion of intersections, the installation of new "intelligent" traffic lights and the comprehensive modernization of turnouts and driveways. The vehicles required a special technical equipment for this purpose. The now obsolete system of crossovers had to be replaced by a new one with "inductive message transmission" (IMU). For this purpose, the railcars were equipped with the new pointsetting device IMU-100, because the points are no longer provided by means of contact with the overhead line, but via receivers that are embedded in the ground. The replacement of the previous course against modern with tongue locking allowed since when driving on the pace of 25 km / h instead of walking speed and also allows the encounter of trains in the switch area. For the establishment of the "green wave" for the tram, it was necessary to set up along the routes so-called "local beacons", which process the telegrams of passing tram trains and forward information to the nearest traffic light system. Prerequisite for this data transmission was the equipment of the railcar with an "integrated on-board information system" (IBIS), an on-board computer.
With the extension of the metro line 6 from Holzapfelkreuth to Klinikum Großhadern on May 23, 1993, the tram network was restructured: The hotly disputed line 26 was finally shut down between Westendstraße and Lorettoplatz and switched to bus operation. The rest of the section to Gondrellplatz was connected via a newly created grassy track through the Zschokkestraße to the net and had it served by the Effnerplatz coming line 18. The former "classic" Schwabinger branch of the line 18 to Petuelring took over the line coming from the Schwanseestraße 27. The line 25 reversed as a short "subway feeder line" only between St.-Martins-Platz and Grünwald. As a replacement for the derailing in the Dachauer road lines 25 and 27 set a new line 21 from Sendlinger Tor to Hanauer road.
On November 20, 1993, the underground line 2 was extended from Scheidplatz to Dülferstraße. This meant the end of the last, built in the 60s "Schnellstraßenbahnstrecken" between Scheidplatz and Harthof / Hasenbergl. The line 12 was shortened, the line 13 completely stopped. For over 21 years, this short, reliable line existed in unaltered form, the high-speed line to Hasenbergl was traditionally a domain of P-cars. Due to the reductions in the southwest and finally in the north of Munich, the tram had reached its absolute bottom. In the rush hour only 80 trains were needed. This drastically reduced car fleet enabled the closure of the depot 3 to 21. November 1993. Since that day, all tram courses are driven from the depot 2, the last Munich tram depot. Despite all these huge restrictions, the newly-elected Lord Mayor Christian Ude should commit himself massively to the expansion and modernization of the Munich tram, which showed already in the following year with the consequent acceleration of lines and the renewal of the fleet.
Wegen des U-Bahn-Baus am Westfriedhof wurde am 17. Januar 1994 die bestehende Schleifenanlage durch Orpheus- und Baldurstraße aufgelassen. Für die Linie 21 legte man eine provisorische Wendeschleife nordöstlich der Kreuzung Dachauer-/Hanauer Straße an.
Im Frühjahr 1994 erhielt die rumänische Hauptstadt Bukarest erstmals ausgemusterte Münchner Trambahnwagen als Schenkung. Zunächst traten nur ausrangierte M/m-Züge den 1500 Kilometer langen Transport nach Rumänien an.
On May 29, 1994, Munich's first "accelerated" line 20 was officially opened with a big public party at Moosach terminus.
On 13 September 1994 started the Munich night line network. Every hour, three tram and seven bus lines served the most important routes between the city center and the outer districts. The next celebration followed on October 11, 1994: As part of a "roll-out" on the grounds of depot 2 of the first production car 2101 type R 2.2 was presented to the press and public.
Now the systematic replacement of the three-axle M / m-Großraumzüge began by their successor model, the R2 car. On December 17, 1994, the brand new R2 2101 railcar was used for the first time instead of an M / m train on the line 20.
Since the 1985 public transport appraisal had still proposed the use of three-part new vehicles with the capacity of M / m trains for the entire future tram network, the transport operators had assumed that vehicles of this size will be sufficient in the long term. More recent calculations, however, showed that a certain number of vehicles with the capacity of the P / p trains would be necessary despite further subway extensions. A plan that provided for the additional installation of new low-floor middle parts in the P-railcar, was discarded after careful review again. Instead, the decision was in favor of new vehicles: in February 1996, therefore, the public transport companies ordered a series of 17 modified four-part R-trains, which were to be over 36 meters long and carry 217 passengers each. These low-floor trains, known as Type R 3.3, were to replace the heavily used 20 and 21 P-cars from 1998 onwards. In the same year the order was increased to 20 sets, the manufacturer ADtranz took in return the three R1 prototypes in payment.
After about a year of construction, on June 1, 1996, the north-east of line 17 between Romanplatz and main station was put back into service exactly 13 years after its closure. The 4.3 kilometer route was directly connected to the station square. This traffic improvement, the priority of the tram at all traffic lights, modern stops, the use of low-floor trains of type R2, and largely own railway body, designed as a lawn track visually appealing, make this new line to a fast and attractive connection. The reopening of line 17 turned into a true folk festival. In glorious sunshine, about 10,000 citizens came to Roman Square, where a comprehensive program of festivities including a tramcar parade with all types of cars ready to drive from the years of construction 1901 (type A) to 1996 (type R2) was offered.
By restarting the route through the Arnulfstraße the following line changes came into force on June 2, 1996: The new line 17 operated from Amalienburgstraße via Romanplatz, Arnulfstraße, Hauptbahnhof to Sendlinger Tor and then on the way to Line 20 to Effnerplatz. Line 20 served only the route Moosach - Sendlinger Tor. The line 12 was also shortened and drove only between Romanplatz and Scheidplatz. The route network of the tram had grown to 69 kilometers, on which at peak hour 81 trains reversed.
The number of passengers on the newly opened line 17 exceeded all expectations, in addition, a large flea market in the area of the Hackerbrücke caused unexpected passenger increases, which could not be coped with with the R2 trains. As an immediate measure, on September 13, 1997, on days with flea market operations (Thursday, Friday, Saturday) on line 17, every second course was equipped with a P / P train.
After eight months of construction, the third of the tram new lines decided on in the "ÖV Concept 2000" was officially opened on 8 November 1997: the so-called "Osttangente" between Wörthstraße and Ostfriedhof went into operation. Like the two other new lines previously (Zschokkestraße and Arnulfstraße) this time was actually a re-commissioning of a former tram route. Until 21 April 1968, the old line 12 drove this route until they were switched to bus because of the S -Bahn construction and the track systems were subsequently dismantled. Now the extended lines 15 and 25 should connect the eastern neighborhoods quickly and directly. Since at the same time the underground line 1 was opened from the Kolumbusplatz to the Mangfallplatz, a real "local transport festival" took place in the east of Munich. As was the case with the opening of line 17, once again a large parade of various types of Munich wagons drove the new route.
On 14 November 1997 for the last time operated a three-axle large-capacity car of type M for the last time. Thus, a five-decade-long era in Munich came to an end. Over the course of its mission, each M-car has circumnavigated the globe an average of 40 times, all 534 M / m vehicles orbiting the globe together over 21,000 times, covering some 854 million kilometers. Recently, three M5 solo railcars were used on the suspension line 18 between Gondrellplatz and Westendstraße, which was set up for track construction work.
As a test vehicle of the new R 3.3 vehicle type, the 1010 VAG Nürnberg wagon, which had been extended to a four-part articulated flat, was delivered by rail freight to the main workshop on 18 November 1997 and undertook a number of driving tests. The main focus was on the novel double joint in the middle of the train. Thanks to this specially developed joint construction, the narrow Munich track radii and curves with S offset can be easily traveled, the vehicle behaves in curves just as a P / P train. Until February 1998, the Nuremberg Trial Quadruple undertook an extensive test drive program. The test runs were very satisfactory, so that nothing stood in the way of the construction of the 20 new low-floor trains.
On May 23, 1998, the extension line of the subway line 1 from Rotkreuzplatz to Westfriedhof was inaugurated. But since May 9, 1998, the trains of the line 20 and 21 drove the newly designed track between the stops Borstei and Hanauer road. The provisional turning loop on Hanauer Straße was abandoned.
On 3 September 1998, the Stadtwerke, which until now had been operating as a municipal utility, acquired a new legal form: as a limited liability company, the plants have since faced European competition and lose their monopoly position, which has existed since 1907. As Managing Director of the Transport division, the former plant manager Herbert König will be employed.
From May 29, 1999, Munich's visitors could take the U2, which was extended from Innsbrucker Ring, to the new exhibition center in the district of Riem. Originally this route should have been opened at the same time as the fair moved to the new location in May 1998, but a tragic accident in the construction of Trudering station, which tore a bus into a sudden crater, led to a postponement of the opening.
The Munich tramcars had to get used to another innovation from May 30, 1999: since that day, the drivers no longer sell tickets, the customers only receive them in the tram from newly installed vending machines behind the driver's cab. The nearly 30-year-old sidecar vending machines have been thrown for months to the "old iron". Since then, no tram cards are available in the tram.
On September 12, 1999, the new turning track at Karlsplatz between Prielmayerstraße and Bayerstraße was put into operation and at the same time the line 20/21 was shortened there. The now free turning loop at Sendlinger Tor could now be used by the new reinforcing line 16 coming from Romanplatz.
On December 13, 1999, the ceremonial "roll-out" of the first low-floor quarter-model R3, the 2201 car, took place. In the wagon hall of depot 2, the articulated train, initially packed as a huge Christmas present, was ceremoniously unveiled. In addition to numerous important improvements over the R2 car, such as an increased seat pitch, a more appealing interior design and a redesigned front and rear end with a finally legible matrix display, the new train bribed by its progressive exterior paint in a bright, rich sky blue and silver-colored window band , Because of its impressive length, the new R3 train was given the nickname "Jumbo Tram" by the transport companies. However, some of the more conservative-minded people in Munich did not like the new livery and mocked the car as a "purple cow" based on the product of a chocolate maker. The district committee Pasing had even a "house ban" for such painted trains, which, however, had no legal existence.
At the end of 1999, Dieter Buhmann, longtime operations manager of the public transport company, retired at the age of 65. His current position as plant manager no longer existed in the new organizational chart of the public transport companies and therefore was not filled up anymore.
During the night of November 10 to 11, 2001, the voltage of the traction current was changed from 650 to 750 volts. Thus, the transport companies adapted to the European standard voltage, while the conversion of the power supply had the advantage of more efficient power feedback of the R-trains and the use of standardized components. The tram operation rested that night and was served by replacement buses. For the higher voltage, all 90 R-railcars were already prepared ex works, in addition, ten P3 / p3 trains had also been refitted as operating reserve in anticipation.
On November 29, 2001, the delivery of the R3-Tw 2220 completed the delivery program for Munich's R car, which was about two years late.
Translated by Google
second home for some Munich tramway cars: Since 1994 some retired M cars are operating in Romania like in Craiova at this picture. Picture: Frederik Buchleitner
Break through at a presentation of the new series of typ R cars numbered from #2101 on 11th of October in 1994.
Picture: Thomas Badalec
Meeting of historic tramway cars at the reopening celebration of line 17 at 1st of June 1996.
Picture: Thomas Mehlstäubler
Opening of east passage at 8ht November 1997.
Picture: Thomas Badalec
Presentation of the new 4 part tramway car typ R3 at 13rd of December in1999 ( people give the nickname "pink cow")
Picture: Peter-Michael Hübner
In 2000 10 lines was operating on a 71 km network.
Zeichnung Peter-Michael Hübner