1965 – 1986: The hype for subways and dismantling of tramway
On February 1, 1965, Lord Mayor Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel and the Bavarian Prime Minister Alfons Goppel in the Ungererstraße the first cut of the spade for the subway line 6, which one day according to the course of the tram line of the same name from Grosshadern to Freimann and should replace the tram on this route. In Munich, a real rapid-transit railway euphoria took hold. At the same time, a major construction boom broke out, which boosted Munich's economy. The "million village" was on the way to a modern cosmopolitan city. As the successor to the former head of the public transport company, Dr. Ing. Fritz Baumeister, Oberbaudirektor Hans Köhl became the new factory director on 1 May 1965. He was given Peter Engelbrecht as technical and Walter Layritz as commercial director.
On 2 November 1965 for the first time operated electronically controlled M5 / M5 / m5 three-car trains on the line 8. To replace the prewar trains ordered the public transport on May 10, 1966 at the company Rathgeber 42 power and 38 sidecar of the new short-sleeved type P / p.
In the years of underground and S-Bahn construction, the tram had to undergo numerous diversions, line route changes and route settings. So disappeared in the years 1965 and 1966, the line 6 in stages from the Ungererstraße, and on July 1, 1965 fell only three years earlier opened, exemplary well-trimmed express highway to Freimann-North the progressive subway construction again to the victim. The decision of the Olympic Committee on April 26, 1966, the XX. The Olympic Games in Munich in 1972 brought about a further acceleration of the underground construction. On June 15, 1966 began in the city center, the construction of the S-Bahn junction tunnel, in which the western and eastern suburban railways of the railroad combined and together should form a 400-kilometer S-Bahn system. The construction of the S-Bahn trunk line forced the setting of many sections of the tram, which numerous historically grown lines had to be abandoned forever.
To prepare for the Munich Transport and Tariff Association founded on July 26, 1968, the Free State of Bavaria, the City of Munich and the German Federal Railroad a joint commission.
On April 21, 1968, the "classical route" of the tram, the route Karlsplatz - Marienplatz - Isartorplatz was set. In the night around 1 o'clock, a line 19 train rolled over Marienplatz for the last time, with great concern from the local press. On the same day, the old Tangentiallinie 12 (Effnerplatz - Wettersteinplatz) was abandoned because the S -Bahn construction had reached the Rosenheimer Platz and the route between Wörthstraße and Ostfriedhof should now be served by buses. This transport policy error was to be revised just 30 years later. The expansion of the Mittlerer Ring on the Donnersberger Bridge resulted in the closure of the busy Line 22 between Schwabing and Harras on 1 March 1970. This robbed the tram network of its tangential lines 12 and 22, which are very important for future traffic tasks. The route network was now much coarser, diversion possibilities were greatly reduced and the journeys to and from the depots extended considerably. On August 1, 1970, the section Implerstraße - Thalkirchen line 20 was sacrificed to the subway construction. The numerous route settings, however, also faced the commissioning of two new lines, which should make an attractive transport offer to the planned subway extension, which was still far off: On September 12, 1970, the lines were 11 and 29 from Michaelibad to Neuperlach -Nord extended. Since October 17, 1970, the lines 9 and 20 drove from Effnerplatz on to the Cosimapark.
In 1970, an extensive conversion program of the M / m and P / p trains on full one-man operation, which was completed in early 1975. The official founding day of the Munich Transport and Tariff Association (MVV) is April 5, 1971.
Shareholders are the Deutsche Bundesbahn and the City of Munich - in equal shares. On October 19, 1971, the long-awaited subway era finally broke in Munich. Since the deadline pressure of the 1972 '72 Olympic Games was hard on the subway farmers, after a record construction time of just six and a half years on this day, the first subway line 6 was officially opened between Goetheplatz and Kieferngarten. This was also the end of the tram through the Ludwig and Leopoldstraße came. Although the tramway was still the most important means of mass transportation in Munich, it had to leave enormous feathers compared to its heyday of the years 1964/65.
For the timetable change 1971/72 on October 19, 1971 only 17 tram lines operated. At peak time, 317 trains were used. On May 8, 1972, Munich's second subway section, the "Olympia Line" U3 between Münchner Freiheit and the Olympic Center, was officially opened. The tram was thus allowed to slowly adjust to its role in the future "interconnected transport", namely its gradual departure from the main means of transport to the feeder service for the rapid transit systems. The new subway station Scheidplatz has become an important transport hub in the north of Munich. The lines 6 and 8, which have been coming from the inner city, have now reached their new endpoints and have been continued by the new short feeder lines 13 (to Hasenbergl) and 23 (to Harthof).
The long-awaited era of intercity traffic began on Sunday, May 28, 1972, with the simultaneous commissioning of the Munich S-Bahn system, which consisted of nine lines. Now it was possible to use a train S-Bahn, regional buses and urban transport tram, bus and subway. The tram network was completely restructured. The tram outdoor routes should be separated according to the philosophy of the former traffic planning as far as possible at the nearest underground or S-Bahn stations from the continuing to the inner city routes. At the Ostbahnhof, such an important connecting point between the S-Bahn trains, the line 21 coming from the center, as well as the new, short feeder lines 14 (to the St.-Veit-Straße) and 24 (to Perlach) was built. Since May 28, 1972 no M5 / M5 / m5 three-car trains reversed, at the same time ended the scheduled use of pre-war trains; the train service on the 18 tramlines reduced to 265 trains. In the Munich city bus network now 71 bus routes were operated, in addition to the MVV tariff area 30 regional lines and six more extensive district lines of the Deutsche Bahn and the Federal Post Office.
From August 26th to September 11th, 1972, the XXth. Summer Olympics held. To cope with the heavy crowds of visitors, literally everything that has wheels has been mobilized. The main burden of the Olympic traffic was undoubtedly the subway line 3. The tram line, however, was hardly used by the visitors, although on the edge of the Oberwiesenfeld was specially built a large turning plant. Despite its own special Olympic lines, the tram only accounted for about 2% of the traffic.
As of December 31, 1972, factory director Hans Köhl retired. His successor was the previous technical director of the transport companies, Peter Engelbrecht. Under Engelbrechts leadership, the transport policy requirements of the City Council, which should amount to a complete abolition of the Munich tramway until 1990, were implemented without compromise.
On September 28, 1973, the line 24 was extended from Neuperlach North to Neuperlach center. This was the last new line of the Munich tram for the next two decades. On May 30, 1975 drove on the line 29 trains for the last time occupied with conductors. Since then, all trams in Munich operate in one-man operation.
On 23 November 1975, the subway lines 3 and 6 were extended from Goetheplatz to Harras, the tram operation in the Lindwurmstraße simultaneously set. As a result, the much-praised line 8, which had become famous beyond Munich's borders, disappeared. According to a tried and tested pattern, the tram routes at the new Harras underground station were broken and connected to new feeder lines. The MVV proposed that the Munich tramway be rebuilt into "light rail" because of its overall high standard of completion and the share of its own railway tracks of 75% of the total network. In the following weeks, the MVV launched an advertising campaign in which the citizens of Munich should be told about the advantages of a modern tram system and the term "light rail" should be suggested. The population reacted to this advertising campaign with incomprehension and rejection.
The centenary of the Munich tramway on October 21, 1976 was duly celebrated with a large vehicle show and a car parade through Munich's city center.
A short articulated tramway car typ P on a route concepted like a interurban line on his own crossing free tracks to Hasenbergl station in 1967.
Foto: Peter Wagner
In June 1967 the first subway car arrives at the depot in Munich.
Opening ceremony at subway station Marienplatz at 19th of october in 1971.
Everybody wants to join the historical cars at the great procession for the 100 year celebration of Munich Tramway in October 1976.
Archiv FMTM e.V.
The "Munich Forum e.V.", a discussion forum on topical urban development issues, launched a large-scale information campaign on transport policy. The planned abolition of the tramway was the focus of criticism. It was only now that the people of Munich realized that their beloved tram would soon beat the last hour. Within a few months, the tramway fighters managed to collect more than 100,000 signatures to maintain the tram. The pressure of the population on the town hall politicians became stronger and stronger.
The opening of Munich's second metro trunk line, the 8/1 line, scheduled for the end of October 1980, sparked lively discussions between tram opponents and advocates about what the future tram network would look like. The city council of Munich finally decided on a compromise because of the numerous resistance from the population. Of the routes planned for the adjustment, only the connection through the Augusten- / Görres- and Tengstraße of the lines 7 and 12 and the line 24 on their total distance from the Ostbahnhof to Neuperlach abandoned. As a small revolution in transport policy, the decision was also resumed operation of the remaining cross-link from Rotkreuzplatz to Hohenzollernplatz the ten years previously shut down line 22 are considered. The ceremonial opening of the underground line 8 from Scheidplatz to Neuperlach-Süd took place on 18 October 1980.
On April 30, 1981, works manager Peter Engelbrecht retired early. On March 1, 1983, factory director Dieter Buhmann was transferred to the management of the public transport. At the same time, a reorganization of Stadtwerke München became final. The previously independent gas, water and electric works were combined with the bathing and transport companies in a so-called "technical plant area".
The year 1983 is considered one of the blackest in the post-war history of the Munich tram. During the tenure of Lord Mayor Erich Kiesl (CSU), who was a staunch opponent of the tram, were closed on the occasion of the opening of two relatively short metro sections equal to 18 kilometers of tram routes. On April 16, 1983, the subway lines 3 and 6 were extended from Harras to Holzapfelkreuth and at the same time the operation on the section Harras - Lorettoplatz line 16 set. The opening of the underground line 1 from the main station to Rotkreuzplatz on May 28, 1983 had the setting of the lines 4, 17 and 21 to the episode. These measures were heavily criticized by the population, as a large part of the existing tramway passengers still did not enjoy the benefit of a new subway, but instead had to make do with new, substitute equipped bus lines.
After opening of subway line U8 October 1980 only 14 tramway lines operating on the left 102 km network.
Drawing: Peter-Michael Hübner
Already on March 10, 1984, the next subway opening was in the house: Munich's third main line, the line 5/9 was inaugurated on its first section between Westendstraße and Karlsplatz solemnly and thereby the short distance on the former exhibition grounds of the previous 14th and 27 set.
The OB candidate of the SPD and his predecessor Kiesls, Georg Kronawitter, made the receipt of the tramway a central campaign topic. Specifically, he wanted to put the one year previously disused sections of lines 16 and 17 as soon as possible back into operation. Georg Kronawitter was actually re-elected and was able to achieve that on 15 September 1984, the Harras - Lorettoplatz route was reactivated on a trial basis.
A real Christmas present for streetcar advocates became the long-awaited presentation of the neutral tramway report in December 1985. It stated that the receipt of the tram is by no means less economical than a pure bus operation. A prerequisite for the economic operation of the tram, however, was the replacement of the fleet with modern vehicles, as well as the completion of the route network by high-volume new lines with tangential traffic tasks.
The evaluators calculated that 126 modern articulated articulated trains will be required to service the future network, which will be equipped with a large number of new lines, such as: B. should be supplemented by the English Garden and the Fürstenrieder road. On July 9, 1986, the Munich City Council was finally able in a unanimous decision to get the tram as a traffic system in the long run. The public transport companies were given a clear mandate to look for a contemporary, new vehicle type and, together with the MVV, to develop an economical tram network for the future.
Translated by Google